Cinzia Imberti is a 2nd year PhD student in the Division of Imaging Sciences & Biomedical Engineering. Her research is about the development and evaluation of radiotracers for PET imaging. Here she talks about her involvement in an outreach activity all about chemistry.
On 17 February March 2016, the Division of Imaging Sciences & Biomedical Engineering opened its doors to around 40 secondary school students (years 11-13) from the London area. They were curious to learn more about chemistry in a medical setting and interested in pursuing scientific studies. This event was part of the larger Outreach event: “Discover Chemistry at King’s College London” organised annually by the Department of Chemistry, now in its third year, under the supervision of Dr Helen Coulshed.
During their visit to St Thomas’ Hospital, the students were able to gain an insight into molecular imaging and understand the key role of this applied field of chemistry in diagnostic medicine.
A tour of our Imaging Chemistry and Biology Laboratories highlighted to the students some of the processes involved in the development of radiotracers, from chemical design to radiolabelling, in vitro testing and in vivo/ex vivo evaluation. Finally they had the unique opportunity to visit the PET Centre where Dr Colm McGinnity and his colleagues talked them through clinical PET imaging as the ultimate goal of radiotracers development.
Poster session with current PhD student
Poster session with Head of Department
Students visiting PET Centre
Tissue culture lab tour
There was an opportunity for students to network with some of the research staff over a cup of tea, actively discuss some of the current research displayed in the posters and ask questions about our careers.
The division’s contribution to Discover Chemistry has been brilliantly coordinated by Julia Torres for the past two years. Therefore, when my supervisor, Professor Phil Blower, asked me to take over the organization, I appreciated how much work me and my colleagues would have to put in to make it a success. What I did not anticipate was the sudden sense of realisation I felt when hearing the enthusiastic feedback of the students. To have inspired these young men and women to undertake scientific studies, or at least to look at the world through scientific eyes, made this event an incredibly rewarding and fulfilling experience for everyone who took part in it.
Dr Lauren Fovargue is a Postdoctoral Research Associate in the Heart & Vessel Modelling group of the Department of Biomedical Engineering at King’s. Her work focuses on personalised computer simulations of patients who qualify for pacemakers to predict whether or not they will improve, since currently pacemakers don’t yield long term results in 35% of patients. Understanding more about how the heart functions will enable her and the VP2HF project to predict if surgery really is the best option.
In late February, my colleagues and I took part in the Science Museum’s Lates event as scientific experts in ‘How to Mend a Broken Heart‘. Currently, there is an exhibition in the Science Museum’s ‘Who am I?’ gallery under the same title which highlights the work done in 3D printing of complex hearts for surgical planning at King’s College London and Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospitals. The Science Museum Lates are a great opportunity for adults to enjoy the exhibits and special interactive events of a great museum (without any children to compete with!) and since I’d enjoyed these events as a participant I was keen to go as a collaborator.
We had a range of cardiovascular experts, from clinical to basic science and from those who interact with patients to those who interact mainly with their computer. Although we’re all linked through the use of imaging in our research, the patient groups we focus on are diverse, like fetal imaging or modelling for dilated cardiomyopathy patients. However, we were all interested in talking about heart and imaging research and had a selection of 3D printed hearts to play with, thanks to our 3D printing colleagues here at King’s.
Personally, I’m a researcher with a computer and by the time patients come to me, I can only see their ID number and MRI images of their heart. My research focus is on predicting whether a person who needs a pacemaker is going to get better, since about 1 in 3 people implanted with one don’t improve. To do this, I mainly utilises tools from maths, physics and computer science to create predictive personal computational models where I can simulate what happens when they get a pacemaker. However, I’ve found that ‘I’m a mathematician who creates computer simulations of hearts’ is not a good conversation opener and I was nervous that I’d have a hard time interacting with people visiting the museum.
Luckily, we had the 3D printed hearts. I knew the purpose of the hearts was to draw people’s attention and bring them in, but I significantly underestimated how helpful they were for me to engage with the public. As a computational scientist, I am sometimes very shy, but the 3D printed hearts gave me a guaranteed way of opening a dialogue with people who looked interested. I learned that starting with ‘Would you like to hold a 3D printed heart ?’ didn’t yield the normal responses of ‘I didn’t like maths’ or ‘I was never good at maths’ but instead peaked peoples curiosity and interest.
After getting over my original nerves, the evening flew by and I had an incredible amount of fun. It was very interesting to have conversations with people of diverse backgrounds and answer all sorts of questions.
We were a team of 8 researchers* and collectively we must have spoken to over 500 visitors in just a few hours. I think people appreciated hearing about how their own heart worked, what makes other hearts malfunction, and getting a picture of what the edge of research looks like. Additionally, I also found it very rewarding to actually feel like an expert for an evening since in research, there are not many days where you feel like an expert. The nature of the job is to push the limits of knowledge so most days you come into work under-qualified for what you need to achieve. People were not only interested in the 3D hearts but in my area of research, and it’s always helpful to practise explaining complicated science without relying on field jargon. Although I may have disappointed someone when I clarified that not all people who have surgery get their heart printed, the public enthusiasm overall was really inspiring. Overall, talking with people about their heart and circulation system was a welcomed change and a really nice chance to remember the impact research can have on our society.
Despite being exhausted from talking (and listening) non-stop for nearly 3 hours it was a really great experience and I would definitely do it again.
* Staff from King’s taking part included: Benjamin Sieniewicz, Samuel Vennin, Liia Asner, Markus Henningsson, David Lloyd, Alberto Gomez, Mari Nevis, Lauren Fovargue and Alice Taylor-Gee.
Dr David Lloyd is aClinical Research Fellow at King’s College London and working as part of the iFIND project. The overall aim of the intelligent Fetal Imaging and Diagnosis project is to combine innovative technologies into a clinical ultrasound system that will lead to a radical change in the way fetal screening is performed.
One of the goals of the iFIND project is to produce an antenatal screening system that uses multiple ultrasound probes at the same time. There are lots of potential advantages to this – for example, we could combine the images from two probes to see more of the baby at once, or provide a more detailed picture of one part of the baby. With iFIND, our hope is to have several separate 3D ultrasound probes working simultaneously, giving us the opportunity to see more of the baby, in more detail, than ever before.
The problem is, how do we control a number of ultrasound probes at the same time? I’ve yet to meet anyone who can scan with two probes at the same time, and several people trying to scan one patient sounds like a bit of a crowd! There is a solution though, and it’s something the team here at iFIND are working hard to develop: robotic arms.
Sounds pretty cool doesn’t it? Get robots to do the scans! But let’s stop and think about this for a minute. We need to make a robotic arm that can not just hold an ultrasound probe, but can twist, flex, rotate and extend, just like a human arm, to get all the views necessary to visualise the baby. Then we need to give it “eyes”: something to tell it not just what it is seeing now, but where and how to move to see other parts of the baby. It also needs to know exactly how hard to press, and we need to make sure it has thorough safety mechanisms built in. Perhaps it’s a tougher challenge than it sounds.
However, as I’ve learnt, no problem is insurmountable for the team at iFIND, and indeed our dedicated robotics group are designing an arm that can do just that. The first step is to record in detail what humans do when they perform a scan, and that’s exactly what we do with our participants. Each dedicated iFIND ultrasound scan we perform records not only the imaging data, but also the exact position, force and torque (twisting force) of the ultrasound probe throughout the scan.
The video below shows an example: on the left, we can see how the sonographer is moving the ultrasound probe across the abdomen of one of our volunteers; the colours under the probe show how much pressure they applied to the skin. The right panel shows the ultrasound images so we know exactly what they could see at the time.
We hope to collect information from all 500 of our participants, and will use it to instruct the robotic arms how to perform the ultrasound scans automatically, just like a person would.
Another problem the team have to think about is far more simple, but perhaps just as important: aesthetics. The arms we design need to look and feel just as gentle and safe as we are designing them to be. So whilst we are collecting all the important data to help develop the technology, we are also learning from participants, just to ask how they would feel being scanned by a robotic arm rather than a person, and what we could do to make them more comfortable about the idea.
So: our goal is to produce a robotic arm that has the dexterity and sensitivity of a human being, knows how to perform a fetal ultrasound, well actually several of them, and doesn’t look scary.. And they also have to talk to each other.
Nick Byrne is a medical physicist who works for Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospitals and within the Cardiovascular Imaging Department at King’s. His main research looks at methods of manipulating cardiac MRI data to fabricate 3D printed heart models that can help cardiologists plan treatments and surgeries for patients with structurally complex heart diseases. Nick took part in Skills London 2015, a careers fair for 15-24 year olds at the Excel Centre in London, where over 7,000 students took part. Nick was joined by Dr Kawal Rhode and PhD student Shuangyi Wang, both from the Department of Biomedical Engineering.
I was recently part of a team of NHS employees who attended the Skills London fair at the ExCel Centre. This is the biggest jobs and careers event for young Londoners, in its own words, aiming to bridge the gap between what young people enjoy doing and what they could potentially do as a career.
We were a mixed group of nurses, paramedics, researchers and scientists, and were there to showcase the wide variety of career opportunities in public healthcare. As the fifth largest employer in the world, we were never going to be able to represent all NHS job roles, so were lucky to also have staff from NHS careers on hand to help us out.
Initially I was concerned that our at least superficially simple stand of leaflets, literature and a few 3D printed heart models might be outshone by some of the flashier exhibits such as the rock climbing wall, penalty kick speed gun and pedal-powered smoothie makers. However, although I found myself considering a career change to animal handling, we soon had a great many school students and young people (15 to 24 years old) approaching us with a real interest in working in the NHS.
We had enquiries from potential future doctors, clinical psychologist, nurses, midwives, dance therapists, scientists, surgeons, paramedics and geneticists to name but a few. I certainly learned a lot about the different routes into the various jobs we were exhibiting but also about just how many different roles are available in the health service. I also had the chance to talk to people about my own research work in 3D printing and enjoyed testing out the GCSE students on their recently acquired knowledge of cardiac anatomy.
It was great to see so many young people keen to learn about the relevant paths into their chosen career in healthcare. I was impressed by the number of clued up students who already knew the best route to take, both into and throughout, their chosen career path, and was happy to help those who were not so sure. We will certainly be in safe hands in the future!
Dr Arna van Engelen, a postdoc in the Department of Biomedical Engineering, recently volunteered at ‘Hands up for Health’, an interactive learning programme run by the Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust. In this article, she tells us about her experience.
The goal of ‘Hands up for Health’ is to help young people experience for themselves what it is like to work in healthcare. It is based in an amazing facility at St Thomas’ Hospital called the Simulation and Interactive Learning centre (SaIL), where visitors can take on the role of doctors treating manikins so lifelike that they speak and even breathe. The programme runs frequently and the staff are always in need of volunteers, so this seemed to me like a good chance to obtain some experience in teaching and interacting with school-age children.
The first time I volunteered I didn’t really know what to expect. After a general introduction to SaIL, I was excited to find my station and learn exactly what it was that I had to teach the children. I was put in charge of two separate practicals: first, a station with soap and a blacklight to demonstrate the importance of thoroughly washing your hands; and secondly, a transparent model of a body showing the lungs, along with equipment to do lung function testing. “Ok,” I thought. “I know a couple of things about this… Now to wait for the kids!”
As the first group came in – all children aged 9 or 10 – I had to catch their attention immediately. I told them as much as I could think of about germs, making sure to ask them questions to keep them engaged. Apparently my inexperience was showing, as one of the teachers started to add some new information, so I made sure to remember what she was saying for the next group! Still, it was great to see the kids get all excited as they started to play with the blacklight and tried to wash all the remaining soap off their hands. Turns out that it’s more difficult to wash one’s hands properly than you might expect!
Over at the lung station I spoke to the children about smoking, asthma and doing sports. It was fun to see them show a competitive side, as they all tried their very best at the lung function testing; and I was able to impress them all with my adult lung capacity.
Because the children were split into several groups, they kept rotating between the stations and I was able to improve my introduction and commentary every time. The kids certainly seemed to enjoy themselves, and I left feeling that everything had gone very well!
The second time I volunteered with a group of older children doing a summer programme. The session was therefore more advanced. In the morning I was running two practicals, co-teaching with an A&E doctor. The first part had us teaching students the steps you have to take when someone enters the emergency room. As a biomedical engineer, this was outside my experience, but luckily the ‘real’ doctor was around to take charge! In the second practical, students were able to take ‘blood’ samples from three lifelike false arms with ‘veins’ running through them. My experience as a blood donor came in handy here! It was great to see how proud the children felt when they successfully managed to take the blood, and I found myself thinking that teaching could be really quite fun.
The afternoon was a simulation of a boy being brought into a fully-equipped ER. The manikins used in the scenario are incredibly lifelike, moving and verbally responding to participants, so the whole experience felt very exciting and real. Again, I was glad of the presence of the A&E doctor, who lent some specific expertise. As assistant, my main task was to help the children do the work, guiding them in the right direction: “Wait, doctor, I think you need to check on him, because his blood pressure is dropping!… What just happened that could have changed his situation?” The whole process ran more smoothly with some groups than with others, but it was evident that all of the participants really enjoyed it.
I was very impressed with the SaIL facility during both of my experiences as a volunteer. The centre offers a unique experience and I am not at all surprised that the participants had such a good time. I also benefited a great deal: working on ‘Hands up for Health’ was a really good way to gain experience teaching young people, and I even gained some new knowledge for myself. As a non-medical doctor, I found it easier to manage the exhibits for the younger children; but with good guidance (and, probably, with practice) I’d recommend the simulations for the older kids to anybody else as well.
If you are keen to get involved and volunteer at Hands up for Health, contact the Division’s Engagement Manager or read more online.
Dr David Lloyd is aClinical Research Fellow at King’s College London and working as part of the iFIND project. The overall aim of the intelligent Fetal Imaging and Diagnosis project is to combine innovative technologies into a clinical ultrasound system that will lead to a radical change in the way fetal screening is performed.
One of the most important goals of the iFIND project is to build an “atlas” of the fetus: a comprehensive map of fetal anatomy at around 20 weeks gestation (when routine antenatal scans are performed). This means getting the best quality images that we can, from as many women as we can – but as I’m learning, taking pictures of a 20 week fetus while they’re still in the womb really isn’t that easy.
For one thing, they’re very (very) small. The fetal heart, for example, with all of its tiny chambers and valves, is only about 15mm long: less than the size of penny. Ultrasound technology – used in all routine antenatal scans in the UK – is actually fairly good at visualising these tiny structures. It uses very high frequency sound waves which are reflected back (“echo”) from the structures inside the body to produce an image. In fetal ultrasound, the images produced can be excellent; but unfortunately that’s not true for every patient. Ultrasound has to be able to “see” through the body to the parts of the baby we want to image, and that isn’t always easy. It will depend on the age of the baby, how they are lying in the womb, the size of the mother, and many other factors.
MRI, which uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to produce images, isn’t so limited. It can see the structures inside the body regardless of whether there’s bone, muscle or fat in the way; and in some cases it can give us even more detailed images than ultrasound. Importantly, it is also one of the few imaging techniques that is safe to use in pregnancy. The problem? MRI isn’t great with small, moving targets – like we see in the fetus.
So that’s why we ask our iFIND volunteers to have both an ultrasound and an MRI scan. By combining the strengths of these two technologies, we hope to get the best of both worlds to produce the most accurate fetal atlas we can.
Of course though, even that isn’t quite so simple. Fetal movements – like twisting, rolling, stretching and kicking – are a particularly tricky problem, even when we use both technologies together .
Watch this MRI clip from one of our volunteers. Unfortunately there’s not much you can do when your patient decides to start breakdancing half way through a scan! At least, you’d think there wasn’t… but amazingly even that may not be an insurmountable problem. In the last few months I’ve been involved with some of the work of Bernhard Kainz and his colleagues, who have devised clever algorithms to automatically correct for small fetal movements during MRI and produce usable images.
These techniques show a huge amount of potential, and are an example of how the iFIND project is helping to generate exciting new technologies on its way to the ultimate goal: to improve the way we see developing babies in the womb.
Carlotta Taddei is a 2nd year PhD student in the Division of Imaging Sciences & Biomedical Engineering. Her research is about the development of radiopharmaceuticals and radiochemicals for medical diagnostics and research. Here she talks about her involvement in an international collaboration and her secondment in Amsterdam. I am part of a project called RADIOMI which is supported by the Marie-Curie Action Innovative Training Networks and has the goal to provide training to produce new talent and innovation in radiochemistry for molecular imaging. The emphasis of this network is focused on training scientists to develop and carry-out innovative radiolabeling with short half-life positron emitting isotopes such as Fluorine-18, Carbon-11 and Nitrogen-13. These novel and improved methodologies will be trialed in the synthesis of known and new radiotracers, such as small molecules, peptides and libraries of biologically active labelled compounds.
Currently I am part of a group of 15 fellows, 13 Early Stage Researchers and 2 Experienced Researchers. We gather together with our supervisors, advisory board and associate partners every 6 months. During these international meetings we present our individual reports and receive valuable feedback on the ongoing research and suggestions for our future work. So far, there have already been 3 RADIOMI Schools and International meetings, with additional courses at the partner universities. Next meeting will be in November 2015 at CIC BiomaGUNE San Sebastian in Spain with the distinguished international Molecular Imaging Workshop 2015.
As part of the RADIOMI project, the ESR fellows have to carry out research projects in collaboration with the other RADIOMI partner universities, so-called secondments. Our department hosted Aleksandra Pekosak and Ulrike Filp, two ESR RADIOMI fellows from VUmc Amsterdam, during June 2015. We carried out a small research project on carbon-11 chemistry related to our PhD topic. This work continued at VUmc during my secondment period there in August 2015.
Before I arrived in Amsterdam, I was looking forward to carrying out radiochemistry work in a different institution to gain more skills in this field. Personally I think it was a very interesting and fruitful experience. Planning and performing radiochemistry work in a different radiochemistry centre having different rules was good training for me. Luckily we managed to obtain some good preliminary results on our research topics in order to continue our work at our corresponding institutions and strengthen the collaboration between the two partner universities.
I really enjoyed this secondment because it gave me a better understanding of team-work and time-management which can be really useful skills in my research field. In the future I hope to have similar work experience to this and grow my international collaborations so that my research can have an impact in this fascinating field.
When I was in school I unfortunately was never introduced to Healthcare Science (HS) careers through any outreach events. I was very lucky though to have been introduced to Medical Physics as part of my A-level physics, which is where it all started. Outreach events are not only used to promote HS careers but encourage and inspire young people to enjoy and take Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) classes. I’m not planning to be a famous science communicator and don’t plan on being the next Brian Cox but I do take every opportunity I have to talk to students about the importance of HS in the current medical era and try and pass on my never ending enthusiasm for it!
Outreach events co-ordinated by IPEM are very organised and everything you might need is provided! Whether it’s a projector and a screen for your presentation or a portable ultrasound scanner and a phantom! All you need is your enthusiasm, excitement and personal experiences from how you came to choose what you are doing now to what your daily job involves! I have prepared and developed a small PowerPoint presentation on what I do as a trainee clinical scientist and use it whenever necessary. I always try and take some bits and bobs of decommissioned medical physics equipment and show them to students. Practical and interactive events are always more successful I believe.
I won the I’m a Scientist (IMAS) Get Me Out of Here Medical Physics zone which came with £500 to spend on outreaching! I must admit it was a lot more intense than I thought it would be! This was an online X-factor style competition where four other medical physicists and I answered students’ questions through live chats and offline questions, which we could answer later on at our own convenience. We all love number crunching and statistics, right? Well, the Medical Physics zone had the most students and live chats of all zones! My profile page had 2,022 views and as you can see in Figure 1 I tried to answer as many questions as possible and participate in as many chats as possible. Figure 2 shows the words that were most used during the chat sessions! I think this figure sums up really well the type of questions we were most asked. Figure 1: Scientists activity pie chart
Figure 2: Cool keywords display from live chats!
The questions were so varied from ‘Can you weaponise your research?’ to ‘How far do you think the benefit outweighs the risk when using radiation for medical treatment?’ so be prepared for anything and everything! I must admit that I was caught unprepared at times and I had to ‘Google it’ when it came to non medical-physics specific questions. One of the best feelings was when a student said that we helped them see the importance of science and what they are learning at school and will think about a profession in HS!
The Science Museum Lates event was a totally new experience for me on the other hand! Why? The audience was the general public and this involved adults! I made sure I asked their profession before I started talking to them about the dangers and uses of UV rays or how light is used for blood pressure monitoring in hospitals. In this way I could adjust my use of science jargon and not waste their and my time if they already knew about it all. All in all it was a great experience and I often found that the public was so interested in medical physics that conversations drifted away to other areas of the profession. The impression I got, which I think we all know by now, is that not a lot of people know about this career. The reactions I got when explaining what clinical engineers and medical physicists do was truly rewarding!
You get the chance to meet a lot of people as well and the networking throughout the process is invaluable! Last but not least – CV! Participating in outreach events undoubtedly indicates that you enjoy your profession and is proof of your effective communication skills. For those who don’t worry about jobs and have them completely secure I have 3 letters for you, CPD! For trainees I have two words for you, professional competencies! Conclusions and Discussion On a personal level I find that being even able to talk about this profession from personal experiences is amazing. I am very lucky to be able to be a part of healthcare science.
I learn new things every single time! You learn how to communicate science at all levels! Not only at international or national conferences which you would do in your day-to-day work. It is a process of learning to explain something in very simple terms and using your own but also the audience’s everyday experiences and knowledge to help understand the importance of healthcare science and grasp the concepts used. At the end of the day we are helping deliver healthcare science to the general public and we should be able to communicate our work to them. Not only will this give recognition to our work, which most of the time is hidden in the background, but will also hopefully inspire future generations!
Dr Christina Malamateniou is a Lecturer of Perinatal Imaging in the Department of Perinatal Imaging and Health, part of the Division of Imaging Sciences & Biomedical Engineering. She organised a morning of talks and activities, showcasing King’s top quality clinical research to a local primary school.
There has never been a more exciting time for children to engage with the latest clinical science developments than now: new, more powerful and sophisticated MRI scanners are being built, a multitude of advanced imaging techniques are being developed-to study normal development and disease as early in the course of life as possible, starting (literally) from the womb(!); 3D-printing and robotics have brought visualisation and understanding of complex pathologies to a totally new level and genetics promises to disentangle the mysteries of human life!
My colleagues at King’s College London and I are passionate about both our clinical research and science and it was exactly this passion that we wanted to instil to 25 ten-year-olds from Heath House Prep School when they visited us at King’s College London Waterloo Campus at the end of summer 2015.
It was a pleasant morning at the Franklin Wilkins Library and I started our day describing how MRI scans are done in our department (Perinatal Imaging and Health) and how the clever imaging we use can make a difference in the quality of life of the very premature babies; children giggled when they saw for the first time how a fetus moves inside his mummy’s tummy and they had the chance to play with an inflatable full size MRI scanner too (a.k.a. the Giant Doughnut, “wow, now I can see why it makes such a loud noise, it is huge!”, kids remarked during the break).
The children then got a chance to learn cool facts about the most amazing, tireless muscle of our body: the human heart and got excited with the robotic arms that Dr Kawal Rhode and his PhD student Shuangyi Wang have constructed to study it. During the break kids saw, and even hold, 3D printed copies of human hearts and they got to guess which one belonged to a premature baby!
Dr Claire Thornton took the baton to introduce us to the magic of genetics and what better way than helping the children learn how to extract DNA from the most fragrant fruit of the summer: strawberries. The students were absolutely thrilled with all the lab equipment they got to use and they amazed us with their questions and eagerness to learn more. We could clearly see some little scientists in the making there!
After an inspiring morning, the children were introduced to our library facilities and academic study during a fun-packed event, carefully planned and organised by our amazing library staff. Mrs Beata Gędłek and her wonderful team navigated the children in the library quiet zones, discussion rooms, study pods (with kids commenting that they looked like coming out of a star wars movie!) and they organized a fun book treasure hunt, with books relating to the morning talks. Kids were divided into 5 groups (Medicine, Biology, Genetics, Robotics and Physiology) and they were like little science detectives as they looked for the specified books using maps and clues carefully prepared by the library staff. They then presented their results and answered questions in the high-tech touch-screen newly installed computer room in the library. There were all smiles when they were awarded their library super-user certificates and KCL gifts at the end of the day.
What an eye opening experience for the children and great fun for us too; kids were asking the most amazing questions, participating and engaging with science, their eyes lighting up with enthusiasm. They were clearly overwhelmed by the amazing facts they learned during our fun interactive workshop. Their feedback says it all: “That was the most amazing visit of our school this year”, “I learned about babies born early and strawberry DNA”, “I didn’t want the day to end!”, “I think I want to become a scientist after all”.
The success of this event and the smiles on children’s excited faces was the best reward for us all. It was also a great way to advertise the multidisciplinary top quality research that takes place everyday at King’s College London across many different departments. I am indebted to all the people who enthusiastically came along and shared their passion in doing research and teaching science to these young inquisitive brains. I guess for us all there is only one question: “When is the next time we can do it again?!”